11.4.4 Explain Theodore Roosevelt's Big Stick diplomacy, William Taft's Dollar Diplomacy, and Woodrow Wilson's Moral Diplomacy, drawing on relevant speeches.
l“Progressivism is a political movement that represents the interests of ordinary people in their roles as taxpayers, consumers, employees, citizens, and parents.” Progressive living Definition
l“(It) is the specifically American development... that seeks social justice above all else, and specifically with reference to the obstacles posed...by large corporations.” Progressivism Applied
lPolitical, Economic, Social, Education
Progressivism and Politics
l“Our aim is to secure the real and not the nominal rule of the people. With this purpose in view, we propose to do away with whatever in our government tends to secure to privilege, and to the great sinister special interests...” Teddy Roosevelt - "Who is a Progressive?"
lDirect election of Senators by the people of the State (17th Amendment 1913).
lNomination of candidates for office by the people through direct Primaries rather than through the convention system of the day.
lCity Management by Commission (Robert M. La Follette, Congressman, Senator, 3 times Governor of Wisconsin)
Teddy Roosevelt and Corporations
lCreation of Bureau of Corporations, Department of Commerce and Labor, 1902
lAnti-trust suit against J. P. Morgan's Northern Securities Corporation, 1904
lMeat Inspection Act, Pure Food and Drug Act, 1906.
lTuskegee Institute founded July 4, 1881. (Booker T. Washington)
lJohn Dewey and Progressive Education.
l"In a complex society, ability to understand and sympathize with the operations and lot of others is a condition of common purpose which only education can procure." School and Society, Dewey
Conservation and National Parks
•The Antiquities Act June 8th, 1906
•Enabled the federal government to proclaim any historical landmarks, prehistoric structures, and other objects of historic or scientific interest in federal ownership
•“Conservation means development as much as it does protection. I recognize the right and duty of this generation to develop and use the natural resources of our land; but I do not recognize the right to waste them, or to rob, by wasteful use, the generations that come after us. I ask nothing of the nation except that it so behave as each farmer here behaves with reference to his own children. That farmer is a poor creature who skins the land and leaves it worthless to his children. The farmer is a good farmer who, having enabled the land to support himself and to provide for the education of his children, leaves it to them a little better than he found it himself. I believe the same thing of a nation.”
(From “New Nationalism
” a speech from Theodore Roosevelt)
Significance: The conservationist movement sought to provide a balance between business and preservationist goals by “meeting present economic needs and conserving natural resources for future generations There are now 392 National Parks in existence which protect the nation’s natural beauty and resources.
Progressive Foreign Policy: Speak Softly and Carry a Big Stick and You Will Go Far
Progressive Foreign Policy:“Speak softly and carry a big stick, and you will go far.”
Imperialism - Asia
Spanish-American war 1898
Teller and Platt Amendments
Sig: Established the U.S. as an imperialist power in the world and a police power in the Caribbean
Philippine-American war 1899-1902
Popular anti-imperialist sentiment at home kept the Philippines from becoming a full fledged colony
The Open Door Policy
Sig: guaranteed the safety of American business interests in China by convincing foreign nations to not establish colonies but spheres of influence instead.
Russo-Japanese War and the Gentleman’s Agreement
President Theodore receives the Nobel peace prize in 1906 for bring the Russians and Japanese to an agreement in 1905.
The Gentlemen’s Agreement between Japan and the United States stated that Japan would not issue any passports to its citizens that were planning on coming to the United States for unskilled labor (except Hawaii)
Sig: American labor interests get their way by halting more immigration of unskilled labor from Asia while the U.S. government avoids an international fiasco by not including the Japanese in the same category of Chinese Exclusion Acts
Imperialism – The Caribbean
The Panama Canal
Completed in 1914 after purchasing the land from the French company that was working on it before.
To secure the land for the completion of the canal French and American backed rebels declared and won their independence from Columbia
Sig: American military ships could respond faster to emergencies on either coast with having to sail around South America. Shipping costs for businesses are greatly decreased.
The Roosevelt Corollary (1904)
As an addition to the Monroe Doctrine of 1823, Roosevelt declared the United States to be the “international police power” in the Caribbean as well as Central and South America
Sig: The U.S. protected European as well as U.S. interests (sugar and fruit) in unstable countries by use of force in Latin American countries to collect debts and ensure that favorable governments kept power.
The Election of 1912: the rise and fall of "third party" politics
•Incumbent Republican President William Howard Taft – ran on the platform that he would strictly enforce “progressive” legislation already in place and secretly looked to help out big business.
•Democrat Woodrow Wilson promised to eliminate trade tariffs and strictly regulate banking
•Progressive (Bull-Moose) Party candidate Theodore Roosevelt promised to continue the progressive reforms he set in motion when he was president
•Taft garnered the least amount of votes that an incumbent president has ever had
•Wilson won with 42% of the popular vote and became only the second Democratic president for the period between 1862 and 1932
•Roosevelt was the most successful third party candidate in U.S. presidential election history with 27% of the popular vote
•Socialist candidate Eugene V. Debs garnered 6% of the popular vote which was 900,000 people
Woodrow Wilson: Moral Diplomacy
•Federal Reserve Act
•Federal Trade Commission – Trust -busters
•Federal Farm Loan Act
•Eliminated tariffs and established the 16th Amendment
•Segregated the Executive branch
•Attempted to isolate the U.S. from European affairs but ended up joining the Central Powers in 1917 and sending U.S. troops to Europe after intercepting the Zimmerman note from Germany to Mexico
•The Fourteen Points and the League of Nations
•Resolved territorial disputes, ensured free trade and commerce, and set up the League of Nations
Hull House 1889: “Aid to the solutions of life in a great city, to help our neighbors build responsible, self-sufficient lives for themselves and their families.”
First woman to receive Nobel Peace Prize in 1931
Founded in Chicago
Still exists today
Neighbors helping neighbors
Settlement house for women, men, and children
Used as a clubhouse, day nursery, union meeting hall, and a place to relax (American Promise).
Place of Education- Social Work
Sig: Where the federal government failed in terms of social reforms, private citizens took up the call to help out people in their same situation, especially women.
Women's Rights Movement Born, 1848-1920
Voices of Movement:
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Susan B. Anthony
Women’s Suffrage Movement- Equal pay and legal equality
Seneca Falls 1848- First Women’s Rights Convention
Stanton and Anthony formed the National Women Suffrage Association 1869
Goals: Right to vote, speak in Congress
Sig: National Women’s Conventions established women as a political force that started to influence politicians and legislation in local, state, and federal governments
More Women’s Reform: Movements on the Rise
Margaret Sanger: Birth control Advocate and Nurse
Opened first birth control clinic; people were outraged
Sig: Women started to take matters into their own hands when the government failed to address matters of great importance
•Jobs: Miners, canneries, heat of glass factories, fruit makers, cigar makers (American Promise).
•Age of Workers: Between 5-15 years old
•Hours: 12 hour days or more; Sunrise to sunset
•Pay: Very low. $.48/day (Lewis Hine website)
•Furman Owens, 12 years old. Can't read. Doesn't know his A,B,C's. Said, "Yes I want to learn but can't when I work all the time." (Lewis Hine website).
•Beginning of 19th century, muckrakers begin to exploit child labor
•Child labor was dangerous and unhealthy
•Injuries, death, safety
•National Child Labor Committee
•Children’s Bureau 1912
•Factory Act 1833
•Essay: Progressive reform addressed many social, economic, and political problems created by the rapid industrialization of the United States in the late 19th century. Name some of those problems and show how the new Progressive reforms dealt with them. Cite specifically how pressure from the executive branch and from individual citizens shaped the formation of legislation at a national and state level.